Gymnocalycium chiquitanum usually grows individually with grey-green to light green, flattened spherical and sometimes red overflowing shoots,which reach growth heights of 2 to 4 cm or more at diameters of 6 to 9 cm. The six to seven ribs have conspicuous chin-like protrusions. The sometimes existing central spine is 1.5 to 2 cm long. The five to nine bent edge spines are yellowish brown to gray and have a darker tip. They are 1 to 2.5 centimetres long.
The purple-pink flowers, sometimes white or salmon-colored, are 5 to 7 centimetres long and have a similar diameter. The dark bluish purple fruits are spindle-shaped and up to 2 cm long.
Gymnocalycium tolerates extremely bright situations but enjoys filtered sunlight or afternoon shade, inside it needs bright light, and some direct sun. Tends to bronze in strong light, which encourages flowering and heavy spine production, but is likely to suffer from sun scorch or stunted growth if over exposed to direct sunlight during the hottest part of the day in summer. The soil is usually a rich sandy loam. Rains are frequent during the summer.
Needs moderate to copious waterings in summer, but do not overwater. Feed with a high potassium fertilizer in summer.
It is an excellent plant for garden rockery settings, desert type landscapes, patios and botanical gardens